Friday, January 8, 2010

definisi disleksia

Definisi Disleksia
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Perkataan disleksia diperkenalkan oleh Profesor Berlin pada tahun 1887, seorang pakar perubatan dan “ophthalmotologist”. Ia adalah gabungan dua perkataan Greek – ‘dys’ iaitu kesukaran dan 'lexia' adalah perkataan.

Kesukaran menggunakan perkataan atau disleksia ialah golongan yang sukar dalam mengenal huruf, membaca, menulis mengeja dan memahami teks bacaan. Ia merupakan ketidakupayaan pembelajaran (masalah pembelajaran) yang khusus (spesifik) dan teruk (sereve learning disability). (Pierangelo, 1996: 171)

Thomson (1990) mendefinisikan disleksia sebagai “masalah perkataan” yang tidak terhad kepada bacaan sahaja tetapi merangkumi masalah ejaan, menulis dan aspek bahasa yang lain.
Word Federation of Neurology (1998) pula menyatakan bahawa disleksia ialah satu ‘disorder’ dalam kanak-kanak yang telah menerima pendidikan biasa, tidak memperolehi kemahiran bahasa, bacaan dan ejaan yang setaraf intelek.

Types of Dyslexia based on Different Functions

Visual dyslexia is the term used for the specific learning disability termed visual processing disorder. This form of dyslexia is the result of immature development of not only the eyes, but the whole process that gets information from the eyes to the brain. Eyes that are not completely developed will send incomplete information to the brain. Incomplete information to the brain then results in poor comprehension of what the child has read, or poor memory of visual information. Sometimes this process results in number and letter reversals and the inability to write symbols in the correct sequence.

Phonological (auditory) dyslexia refers to the specific learning disability termed auditory processing, or the more severe condition termed Auditory Processing Disorder (OPD). This form of dyslexia involves difficulty with sounds of letters or groups of letters. When this form of dyslexia is present, the sounds are perceived as jumbled or not heard correctly. And just as with visual processing, the brain correctly interprets information that it correctly received.

Dyspraxia refers to the learning disability term sensor-motor integration and is a widely pervasive motor condition characterized by impairment or immaturity of the organization of movement, with associated problems of language, perception and thought. Typically, the child in question may be seen to be clumsy and poorly coordinated.
The term dyspraxia is separated into "true dyspraxia" a lifelong condition that responds to some degree to consistent, early, and structured intervention; and “developmental dyspraxia” a matter of neurological immaturity, a delay rather than a deficit that can be resolved over time with appropriate treatment. The problem is that only time determines the difference.

“Verbal praxis” refers to weaknesses observed in the mechanisms of speech production such that articulation is impaired and expressive language is inhibited. Speech production and articulation are not considered learning disabilities, and are addressed by a speech and language therapist.

Dysgraphia is the term given to the most significant educational effects of the condition and refers to an inability to hold or control a pencil so that the correct markings can be made on paper. These symptoms are most commonly seen as poor letter formation in printing, or as poor cursive handwriting skills. As a specific learning disability these symptoms would be identified as immature fine motor development.

Dyscalculia is a lesser known disability, similar and potentially related to dyslexia and developmental dyspraxia. Dyscalculia is an impairment of the ability to solve mathematical problems, usually resulting from brain dysfunction. It occurs in people across the whole IQ range, and sufferers often, also have difficulties with time, measurement, and spatial reasoning. Although some researchers believe that dyscalculia necessarily implies mathematical reasoning difficulties as well as difficulties with arithmetic operations, there is evidence that an individual might not be able to manipulate the numerals in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (or dyscalculia), with no impairment of, or even giftedness in, abstract mathematical reasoning abilities.

Dyscalculia can be detected at a young age and measures can be taken to ease the problems faced by younger students in the same way that dyslexia can be dealt with by using a slightly different approach to teaching. However, dyscalculia is the lesser known of these learning disorders and so is often not recognized.